In English, the letter ⟨u⟩ has four main pronunciations. There are “long” and “short” pronunciations. Short ⟨u⟩, found originally in closed syllables, most commonly represents /ʌ/ (as in ‘duck’), though it retains its old pronunciation /ʊ/ after labial consonants in some words (as in ‘put’) and occasionally elsewhere (as in ‘sugar’). Long ⟨u⟩, found originally in words of French origin (the descendant of Old English long u was respelled as ⟨ou⟩), most commonly represents /juː/ (as in ‘mule’), reducing to /uː/ after ⟨r⟩ (as in ‘rule’), ⟨j⟩ (as in ‘June’) and sometimes (or optionally) after ⟨l⟩ (as in ‘lute’), and after additional consonants in American English (see do–dew merger). (After ⟨s⟩, /sjuː, zjuː/ have assimilated to /ʃuː, ʒuː/ in some words) In a few words, short ⟨u⟩ represents other sounds, such as /ɪ/ in ‘business’ and /ɛ/ in ‘bury’.
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